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|Interdenominational Assembly of Churches
|All Roads Lead To A Church
Christianity (from the Ancient Greek: Χριστιανός Christianos and the Latin suffix -itas) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. It also considers the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament, to be canonical. Adherents
of the Christian faith are known as Christians.
The mainstream Christian belief is that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human and the saviour of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus
as Christ or Messiah.Jesus' ministry, sacrificial death, and subsequent resurrection, are often referred to as the Gospel message ("good news"). In short, the Gospel is news
of God the Father's eternal victory over evil, and the promise of salvation and eternal life for all people, through divine grace. Jesus stated that love is the greatest commandment:
"Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind [and] thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."
Worldwide the three largest groups of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman
Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East–West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation
of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.
Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine), it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia,
Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state religion of the Roman Empire, replacing other
forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious
minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas,
Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world.
Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, referred to as the "Old Testament" in Christianity. The foundation of Christian theology is expressed in
the early Christian ecumenical creeds which contain claims predominantly accepted by followers of the Christian faith. These professions state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried,
and was resurrected from the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust him for the remission of their sins (salvation). They further maintain that Jesus
bodily ascended into heaven where he rules and reigns with God the Father. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant eternal
life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the revealer and physical incarnation of God. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel
("good news") and generally adhere to the Ten Commandments.
As of the early 21st century, Christianity has approximately 2.2 billion adherents. Christianity represents about a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion.
Christianity is the state religion of several countries. Among all Christians, 37.5% live in the Americas, 25.7% live in Europe, 22.5% live in Africa, 13.1% live in Asia, 1.2% live in
Oceania and 0.9% live in the Middle East.
Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal
“in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another.” Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as
the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ.
An Eastern Christian Icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
The Apostles' Creed remains the most popular statement of the articles of Christian faith that are generally acceptable to most Christian denominations that are creedal. It is widely
used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Rite
of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed
between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current
in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.
Its main points:
belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ the holiness of the Church and the
communion of saints, Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful. The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils
of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, aught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures,
inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.
The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity;
neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."
Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.
Christian views of Jesus are based on the teachings and beliefs outlined in the Canonical gospels, New Testament letters, and the Christian creeds.
These outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. The second sentence in the ICET
version of the Nicene Creed states: "We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God...".
In the New Testament Jesus indicates that he is the Son of God by calling God his father.
Christians consider Jesus the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation
and the promise of eternal life. These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer in Calvary as a sign of his full obedience
to the will of the Eternal Father, as an "agent and servant of God". The choice Jesus made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and
obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.
Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and the Son of God. While there have been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians
generally believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become
fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According
to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. He ascended to heaven, to sit at the "Right Hand of God," and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and
the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the World to Come.
The historicity of Jesus refers to the analysis of historical data to determine if Jesus existed as a historical figure, approximately where and when he lived, and
if any of the major milestones in his life, such as his method of death, can be confirmed as historical events. In contrast, the study of the historical Jesus goes beyond
the question of his historicity and attempts to reconstruct portraits of his life and teachings, based on methods such as biblical criticism of gospel texts and the history
of first century Judea.
Virtually all modern scholars agree that Jesus existed, and see the theories of his non-existence as effectively refuted. Scholars generally agree that Jesus was a
Galilean Jew who was born BC 7–2 and died AD 30–36. Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and that he spoke Aramaic and may have
also spoken Hebrew and Greek. Although scholars differ on the reconstruction of the specific episodes of the life of Jesus, the two events whose historicity is
subject to "almost universal assent" are that he was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate.
Beyond baptism and crucifixion, scholars attribute varying levels of certainty to the historicity of other events and a list of eight facts that may be historically certain
about Jesus and his followers has been widely discussed. But scholarly agreement on this extended list is not universal, e.g. while some scholars accepts that Jesus
called disciples, others maintain that Jesus imposed no hierarchy and preached to all in equal terms.
Since the 18th century a number of quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, and historical critical methods for studying the historicity of Jesus have been
developed. Various Christian and non-Christian sources are used to study and establish the historicity of Jesus, e.g. Jewish sources such as Josephus, and Roman
sources such as Tacitus. These sources are compared and contrasted to Christian sources such as the Pauline letters and the synoptic gospels to determine the historicity
of Jesus. These sources are usually independent of each other (e.g. Jewish sources do not draw upon Roman sources), and similarities and differences between them
are used in the authentication process.
A definition of Christianity
Christianity: a universal missionary religion based on the recognition in Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ, that is to say the Messiah foretold by the prophets of the Old Testament.
Issue of Judaism, its doctrine is based on the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, love of neighbour and salvation made possible by the crucifixion of Jesus.
Christianity is based on the Bible and especially the New Testament (Gospels, Epistles ,...) describing the teachings of Jesus. In the fourth century, it grows around the Mediterranean
and then spread throughout Europe after the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine, who leaves the protection of tutelary gods of the Empire to that of the god of the Christians.
The schism of 1054 saw the final separation of the Orthodox Church of Rome. The willingness of the Catholic Church to go free the Holy Places begin eight crusades between 1096 to 1270.
In the sixteenth century Reformation led to further fragmentation of Christianity. In response to corruption and abuse (Inquisition) of the Roman Church, Martin Luther and John Calvin
proposed an alternative closer to the Bible and practice giving rise to different churches or Protestant Reformed say, the most important are the Lutheran and Calvinist
Catholicism: the Catholic Church is the largest Christian religion, which the pope is the spiritual leader. It is called "Catholic", that is to say universal, as it has everywhere the same doctrine,
"Roman" for the pope lives in Rome the Vatican and "apostolic" because the pope is the successor of the apostles, the apostle Peter was considered the first Pope. Unlike Protestantism which
brings the Christian faith to the Scriptures alone, the Catholic Church sees itself as the sole heir and custodian of the teachings of Jesus, transmitted orally and in writing . Any discrepancy
with the dogma and therefore the universal nature of Catholicism creates a heresy (eg Arianism, Cathars) or schism (Orthodox, Protestant).
Besides the Scriptures (Old and New Testaments), the Catholic Church is based on Tradition which is the continuity of divine action and the Church is the only authorized interpreter of truth.
The mystery of the incarnation of Christ, his death and resurrection are the foundation of his doctrine.The sacraments, sevenin number of vital importance: baptism, confirmation, penitence
(confession, contrition and reparation of sins) Eucharist, marriage, ordination, anointing of the sick (formerly known as extreme unction). The pope is the "primus inter pares," the bishop
takes precedence over others "and"one who provides the unity of the Catholic Church. "The infallibility of the pope (dogma established in 1870) is highly regulated. It addresses issues of
faith and there must be consensus or virtual unanimity among the bishops. Example: the immaculate conception in 1858, and Assumption in 1950.
Monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. The Christian faith is essentially faith in Jesus as the Christ
(or Messiah), the Son of God, the Savior, and, according to Trinitarianism, God the Son, part of the Trinity with God the Father and the Holy Spirit.
Catholicism – broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious
people as a whole.
Roman Catholicism – Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members.
Independent Catholic Churches – Catholic congregations that are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church or any other churches whose sacraments are
recognized by the Roman Catholic Church (such as the Eastern Orthodox and some Oriental Orthodox Churches).
Old Catholic Church – number of Ultrajectine Christian churches that originated with groups that split from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, most importantly
that of Papal Infallibility.
- Roman Catholic Church – world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members.
- Union of Utrecht (Old Catholic) – federation of Old Catholic Churches, not in communion with Rome, that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church
over the issue of Papal infallibility.
- Eastern Christianity – Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Horn of Africa,
India and parts of the Far East over several centuries of religious antiquity.
- Eastern Orthodox Church – officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church is the second
largest Christian church in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,
Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine, all of which are majority Eastern Orthodox.
- Oriental Orthodoxy – faith of those Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the
First Council of Constantinople and the First Council of Ephesus.
- Eastern Catholic Churches – autonomous, self-governing (in Latin, sui iuris) particular churches in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.
- comprises multiple Christian traditions of Syriac Christianity – Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia, comprises multiple Christian traditions of Eastern Christianity.
|Accepted by most Jews
As their Messiah
Did you know...
....that ecclesiastical Latin remains
the official language of the Roman
Catholic Church and is thus also
the official language of Vatican City?
Protestantism – one of the major groupings within Christianity, and has been defined as "any Western Christian who is not an adherent
of a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Church," though some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant as well.
- Anglicanism – tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs,
worship and church structures.
- Adventism – Christian movement which began in the 19th century, in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the
- Anabaptist – Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, although some consider Anabaptism to be a distinct
movement from Protestantism. Anabaptists practice adult baptism as well as a belief in pacifism.
- Baptist – Christians who comprise a group of denominations and churces that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed
only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by immersion (as opposed to
affusion or sprinkling).
- Calvinism – is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life.
- Evangelicalism – Protestant Christian movement which began in the 17th century and became an organized movement with the emergence around
1730 of the Methodists in England and the Pietists among Lutherans in Germany and Scandinavia.
- Holiness movement – set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century.
- Lutheranism – major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer.
- Pentecostalism– renewal movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in
the Holy Spirit.
- Presbyterianism – branch of Protestant Christianity that adheres to the Calvinist theological tradition and whose congregations are organized
according to a Presbyterian polity.
Restoration Movement – Christian movement that began on the American frontier during the Second Great Awakening of the early 19th century.
- Wesleyanism – movement of Protestant Christians who seek to follow the methods or theology of the eighteenth-century evangelical reformers,
John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley.
- Continuing Anglican movement – number of Christian churches in various countries that profess Anglicanism while remaining outside the Anglican Communion.
- Seventh-day Adventist Church – Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian
week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming (Advent) of Jesus Christ.
- Mennonites – an ethno-religious group based around the church communities of the Christian Anabaptist denominations named after the
Frisian Menno Simons (1496–1561), who, through his Amish, sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites, are a group of Christian church fellowships
that form a subgroup of the Mennonite churches.
- Hutterite – communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
- Schwarzenau Brethren – originated in Germany, the outcome of the Radical Pietist ferment of the late 17th and early 18th century.
List of Reformed churches – group of Christian Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine.
- National Association of Evangelicals – fellowship of member denominations, churches, organizations, and individuals.
- Christian Holiness Partnership – an international organization of individuals, organizational and denominational affiliates within the holiness movement.
- List of Lutheran denominations – list of Lutheran denominations grouped by affiliation with international Lutheran bodies.
- Pentecostal World Conference – fellowship of Pentecostal believers and denominations from across the world.
List of Presbyterian denominations in Australia – list of various Presbyterian denominations in Australia
- Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) – mainline Protestant Christian denomination in North America.
- Churches of Christ – autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another, seeking to base doctrine and practice on the Bible alone,
and seeking to be New Testament congregations as originally established by the authority of Christ.
- Christian churches and churches of Christ – part of the Restoration Movement and share historical roots with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
and the a cappella Churches of Christ.Methodism – movement of Anglican Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations,
claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism.
Nontrinitarian – Nontrinitarianism (or antitrinitarianism) refers to monotheistic belief systems, primarily within Christianity, which reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity,
namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia.
- Latter Day Saint movement – Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement or LDS restorationist movement) is the collection of independent church groups
that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
- Oneness Pentecostalism – Oneness Pentecostalism (also known as Apostolic Pentecostalism or One God Pentecostalism) refers to a grouping of denominations and
believers within Pentecostal Christianity, all of whom subscribe to the nontrinitarian theological doctrine of Oneness.
- Bible Student movement – Bible Student movement is the name adopted by a Millennialist Restorationist Christian movement that emerged from the teachings
and ministry of Charles Taze Russell, also known as Pastor Russell.
- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints – Church of Christ was the original name of the Latter Day Saint church founded by Joseph Smith, Jr.
- Jehovah's Witnesses – Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
|Latter Day Saint Church in Darmouth N.S.
|the Greek word Χριστός, Christós in Latin as Christus, in the New Testament as a
description for Jesus. Christ is now often used as if it were a name, one part of the name
"Jesus Christ", but is actually a title: the Messiah. Its usage in "Christ Jesus" emphasizes
its nature as a title.
In the Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible, the word Christ was used to translate into
Greek the Hebrew mashiach (messiah), meaning "anointed." Christós in classical Greek
usage could mean covered in oil, or anointed, and is thus a literal translation of messiah.
The spelling Christ in English was standardized in the 18th century, when, in the spirit of
the Enlightenment, the spelling of certain words was changed to fit their Greek or Latin
origins. Prior to this, in Old and Middle English, the word was usually spelled Crist the i
being pronounced either as /iː/, preserved in the names of churches such as St Katherine
Cree, or as a short /ɪ/, preserved in the modern pronunciation of Christmas. The spelling
"Christ" is attested from the 14th century.
In modern and ancient usage, even within secular terminology, Christ usually refers to
Jesus, building on the centuries old tradition of such use. Since the Apostolic Age, the
use of the definite article before the word Christ and its development into a proper name
signifies its identification with Jesus as the promised Jewish messiah.
REM: I learn that the word was pejorative who designed any jewish person to the greek.
Like niggers for black, people, blokes for English and frogs for French, pollock for Polish
and wops or cake for Italians.(see Wiki)
For the Greek the laughing part was that the great priest verse oil on the head of a new
king and was transposed to all jews calling them oily or in greek Christós. Nothing to do
with a Jesus from Nazareth.
Modern post-Enlightenment Christian views
In recent years, some Christian groups have become more open to religious
pluralism; this has led to many cases of reconciliation between Christians
and people of other faiths. The liberalization of many Seminaries and theological
institutions, particularly in regards to the rejection of the notion that the Bible is an
infallible document, has led to a much more human-centered and secular movement
within Mainline Christian denominations, particularly in the United States. Some
Mainline churches no longer hold to exclusivist views on salvation.
In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between
some Christian groups and the Jewish people. Many modern day Christians, including
many Catholics and some liberal Protestants, have developed a view of the New
Testament as an extended covenant; they believe that Jews are still in a valid
relationship with God, and that Jews can avoid damnation and earn a heavenly
reward. For these Christians, the New Testament extended God's original covenant
to cover non-Jews.
Many smaller Christian groups in the US and Canada have come into being over the
last 40 years, such as "Christians for Israel". Their website says that they exist in order
to "expand Christian-Jewish dialogue in the broadest sense in order to improve the
relationship between Christians and Jews, but also between Church and Synagogue,
emphasizing Christian repentance, the purging. A number of large Christian groups,
including the Catholic Church and several large Protestant churches, have publicly
declared that they will no longer proselytize Jews.
Other Modern Christian views, including some conservative Protestants, reject the
idea of the New Testament as an extended covenant, and retain the classical Christian
view as described above.
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering
diverse, philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within
Christianity from the late 18th century and onward. Liberal does not refer to Progressive
Christianity or to the political philosophy, but to the philosophical and religious thought
that developed as a consequence of the Enlightenment.
Liberal Christianity, broadly speaking, is a method of biblical hermeneutics, an
undogmatic method of understanding God through the use of scripture by applying
the same modern hermeneutics used to understand any ancient writings. Liberal
Christianity does not claim to be a belief structure, and as such is not dependent
upon any Church dogma or creedal statements. Unlike conservative varieties of
Christianity, it has no unified set of propositional beliefs. The word liberal in liberal
Christianity denotes a characteristic willingness to interpret scripture while attempting
to achieve the Enlightenment ideal of objective point of view, without preconceived
notions of the inerrancy of scripture or the correctness of Church dogma. A liberal
Christian, however, may hold certain beliefs in common with catholic, orthodox, or
even Christian fundamentalism.
Christian Universalism is a school of Christian theology which includes the belief
in the doctrine of universal reconciliation, the view that all human beings and all fallen
creatures will ultimately be restored to right relationship with God in Heaven.
The term "Christian Universalism" was used in the 1820s by Russell Streeter of the
Christian Intelligencer of Portland – a descendant of Adams Streeter who had
founded one of the first Universalists believe this was the most common interpretation
of Christianity in Early Christianity, prior to the 6th century. Christians from a diversity
of denominations and traditions believe in the tenets of this belief system, such as
the reality of an afterlife without the possibility of eternal presence in hell.
As a Christian denomination, Christian Universalism originates in the late 18th century
with the Universalist Church of America. There is currently no single denomination
uniting Christian Universalists, but a few denominations teach some of the principles
of Christian Universalism or are open to them. In 2007, the Christian Universalist
Association was founded to serve as an ecumenical umbrella organization for
churches, ministries, and individuals who believe in Christian Universalism.
Unitarian Universalism historically grew out of Christian Universalism but is not an
exclusively Christian denomination. It formed from a 1961 merger of two historically
Christian denominations, the Universalist Church of America and the American
Unitarian Association, both based in the United States.
Unitarianism is a theological movement, named for its understanding of God as
one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism, which defines God as three persons
coexisting consubstantially as one being. Unitarians maintain that Jesus is in some
sense the "son" of God, but not the one God. Unitarianism is also known for the
rejection of several conventional Christian doctrines besides the Trinity, including
the soteriological doctrines of original sin and predestination, and, in more recent
history, biblical inerrancy. In J. Gordon Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions
it is classified among "the 'liberal' family of churches".
The Unitarian movement, although not called "Unitarian" initially, began almost
simultaneously in Poland-Lithuania and Transylvania in the mid-sixteenth century.
Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians. In England the first
Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, London, where today's
British Unitarian headquarters are still located. The first official acceptance of the
Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation in America was by King's Chapel in
Boston, from where James Freeman began teaching Unitarian doctrine in 1784,
and was appointed rector and revised the Prayer Book according to Unitarian
doctrines in 1786.
Progressive Christianity is an approach to the Christian faith that is influenced
by post-liberalism and postmodernism and: proclaims Jesus of Nazareth as Christ,
Savior, and Lord; emphasizes the Way and teachings of Jesus, not merely His
person; emphasizes God's immanence not merely God's transcendence; leans
toward panentheism rather than supernatural theism; emphasizes salvation here
and now instead of primarily in heaven later; emphasizes being saved for robust,
abundant/eternal life over being saved from hell; emphasizes the social/communal
aspects of salvation instead of merely the personal; stresses social justice as
integral to Christian discipleship; takes the Bible seriously but not necessarily
literally, embracing a more interpretive, metaphorical understanding; emphasizes
orthopraxy instead of orthodoxy (right actions over right beliefs); embraces reason
as well as paradox and mystery — instead of blind allegiance to rigid doctrines
and dogmas; does not consider homosexuality to be sinful; and does not claim
that Christianity is the only valid or viable way to connect to God (is non-exclusive).
A note on Islam
Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/; Arabic: الإسلام, al-ʾIslām is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله Allāh)
and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to submit to and serve Allah (God). Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version
of a primordial faith that was revealed before many times throughout the world, including notably through Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets.
They maintain that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted or altered over time, but consider the Arabic Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final
revelation of God. Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on
virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare, to warfare and the environment.
Islam's most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd (Arabic: توحيد). God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as: "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the
Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."(112:1-4) Muslims and Jews repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity
of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or
attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful".
Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: أنۢبياء anbiyāʾ ) as those humans chosen by God to be his messengers. According to the Qurʼan, the prophets were instructed by God to bring
the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says
that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Qurʼan mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam,including
Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.
- ..that there are approximately 2.5 billion Christians worldwide?
- ...that there are usually 66 books in the Protestant Bible, and 73 in the Catholic Bible, and 75 in the Eastern Orthodox Bible?
- ...that there are over 33,500 Protestant denominations in 238 countries worldwide?
- ...that during the Avignon Papacy from 1305 to 1378, several medieval popes lived/resided in Avignon and not in Rome?
Practitioners are often called Charismatic Christians or renewalists. Although there is considerable overlap, Charismatic Christianity is often categorized into three separate groups:
Pentecostalism, the Charismatic Movement, and neocharismatic movements. In 2011, Pentecostals and Charismatic Christians numbered over 500 million, a quarter of the world's
2 billion Christians.
The term charismatic derives from the Greek word χάρισμα ("gift", itself derived from χάρις, "grace" or "favor"). This is the same origin for the word charismata, another term for
Charismatic Christianity is diverse, and it is not defined by acceptance of any particular doctrines, practices, or denominational structures. Rather, renewalists share a spirituality
characterized by a worldview where miracles, signs and wonders, and other supernatural occurrences are expected to be present in the lives of believers. This includes the presence
of spiritual gifts, such as prophecy and healing. While similar in many respects, renewalists do differ in important ways. These differences have led to Charismatic Christianity being
categorized into three main groups: Pentecostalism, the charismatic movement, and neo-charismatic movements